Ziziphus — benefits and harms to humans. Detailed description of the fruits of ziziphus (dates) — 70 photos
Among domestic gardeners, ziziphus is still considered exotic. But in fact, this plant has been cultivated by man for more than 4 thousand years. In different countries, it is called jujuba, unabi or Chinese date because of the external similarity of the fruits (looking at the photo of ziziphus for the first time can really be confused). Thanks to its versatility, it has fallen in love with summer residents, landscape designers, cooks and folk healers.
The homeland is considered to be Manchuria and the territory of the modern Chinese province of Inner Mongolia. Nowadays it is found in almost all countries with a temperate climate. In Russia, ziziphus grows in the southern regions — in the North Caucasus, Kuban, Crimea, but it can be grown further north.
The tree grows up to 5 meters tall, with a wide crown, bright green shiny leaves. The trunk is bare. The shoots are elastic, bent in shape, with smooth bark, there may be small spikes on the bend.
Mature fruits are oblong, 1-2 cm in diameter, with a dense skin from light brown to burgundy shades and a large stone inside. The flesh is fleshy, dense consistency, sweet to the taste, sometimes with a sour taste.
There are more than fifty varieties of ziziphus in the world. In Russia, the most common breeding species, due to climatic conditions. The varieties of Koktebel and Sinite bred in the Crimea can be grown not only in the south, but also in the central Chernozem region.
They are characterized by high fertility and early ripening, the first harvest can be harvested already in the second or third year after planting. The fruits are relatively large, sweet, with a characteristic sourness, used by housewives for making jams and jams.
The varieties of the work of Chinese breeders — Ya-Tsao and Ta-Yang-Tsao are also popular. They are easily recognized by the small pear-shaped fruits and the complete absence of thorns on the branches.
Both are distinguished by a specific pulp of a powdery consistency and astringent sweet taste. Ya-Tsao has no bones, which makes it excellent for drying, but it is also good in fresh form. They are widely cultivated in the Far East in the regions bordering China.
The large-fruited Moldovan variety Mori Ger, characterized by early ripening and excellent taste qualities, also deserves attention. It takes root well on the lands from the steppe Altai to Belgorod.
Planting and caring for ziziphus will not cause much trouble, but it should be borne in mind that the plant is very demanding on the nutritional value and quality of the soil. Moderately moist chernozems and loams are ideal. It is also necessary to choose a sunny place — in shady places unabi will not give the maximum yield.
To give the roots time to strengthen, it is better to plant in early spring, and it is not recommended at all to do this in the fall — in this case, the roots will freeze and the plant may die, unless of course we are talking about frost-resistant varieties.
When choosing a place for planting, it should be provided that when the tree grows, its crown will be spreading. The plant itself should be given a "personal space" with a diameter of a meter and a half.
Fertilizers are added to the excavated pit, a compost heap or manure is suitable. Having placed the seedling in a recess and covered with earth, it is necessary to thoroughly tamper and pour plenty of water.
Seedlings can be independently germinated from the seeds, but preferably purchased in a specialized store. This way there will be more guarantees for survival and less hassle, because the Chinese date is a cross-pollinated plant, and for better yields on the site there should be trees of two or more varieties in close proximity to each other.
If all the recommendations for planting are followed, the cultivation of ziziphus does not cause worries. He calmly withstands any heat, and the varieties bred for our latitudes will endure severe frosts. Unabi is also very resistant to diseases and pests, which eliminates the need for regular chemical treatment.
Practically does not require additional watering, except at the stage of accelerated growth in the first years of life and during a significant drought. And he lives, by the way, for a very long time — almost a century.
After winter, when it is important to restore nutrients, fertilizing with mineral fertilizers will not be superfluous. During the season, additional fertilization is not required, provided timely removal of weeds that deplete the soil.
When the roots have strengthened, and the tree itself has strengthened (usually it is two or three years old), you can begin to form the crown to your liking. Periodic pruning has not only a decorative, but also a sanitary function — the removal of excess branches will have a good effect on the fertility and health of shoots.
Depending on the variety, it begins to bear fruit in the third or fourth year of life, but with good growth conditions and proper courtship, it can give the first harvest for the second season. Reproductive age occurs on average in the tenth year.
Flowering is later, so spring frosts, even in May, are not terrible for him. Lasts about two months and is accompanied by pleasant aromas. Honeybee attracts bees in huge quantities, which contribute to better pollination.
Breeding varieties bear fruit until late autumn and can produce an average of 30-60 kg per tree, large—fruited species under favorable conditions and fertilization - up to a hundredweight.
If subsequent processing is provided, they are collected unripe, immediately after the green color begins to take on brown shades. In fresh form, they are consumed only fully ripe.
It is used both fresh and processed — used for the manufacture of candied fruits, jams, pastes, jams. You can dry it directly in the sun without additional preparation, it is stored in this form for a very long time.
The useful properties of ziziphus are due to its use in other areas, both fruits and bark with leaves.
In the east, it is called the tree of youth, due to its ability to cleanse the body of toxins and slow down aging. From a scientific point of view, this is due to the fact that fruits contain more ascorbic acid than any citrus fruits, which allows us to recommend unabi as a natural antioxidant, as well as a lot of other vitamins, minerals and nutrients.
Iodine, cobalt and iron, useful for hematopoiesis, are also present in large quantities. Saponins, glycosides and rare acids are involved in the treatment of a number of ailments.
A decoction of fruits soothes, is used as an adjunct for stomatitis. And it also improves lactation, which will appeal to young moms who are forbidden a lot of goodies during this period.
The leaves have antiseptic properties. Experiments have shown that if you have a toothache, just chew on the leaves of Chinese dates, and the pain subsides. At least until your dentist you get more comfortable.
Tea from the leaves has a sedative and relaxing effect, which can be useful for insomnia. The alcoholic tincture from the seeds also showed itself well.
Despite all the healing properties, there are contraindications, as with any medicine. Therefore, before using concentrates, you should consult a doctor.
The antibacterial properties of the leaves have been used in the healing of acne, pimples and inflammation on the skin of the face. To do this, an ointment is prepared based on oil (more often olive), in which the leaves are placed and brought to a temperature of 80-90 degrees Celsius, and allowed to infuse for 10 days. Apply to problem areas 2-3 times a day for half an hour.
Decoctions and infusions, thanks to all the same properties, have shown themselves well in the treatment of dandruff. Along the way, hair follicles are stimulated, blood circulation in the scalp improves, which improves the health and beauty of the hair. Jujube concentrates are widely used by manufacturers in shampoos and hair care products.