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Water well — drilling scheme, principle of operation and selection of the optimal device (70 photos)

Water is required for the improvement of any suburban economy. It is needed for construction work, for landscaping the territory and just for personal needs.

But what to do if there is no centralized water supply system on the plot? The way out will be an autonomously organized object — a well or a well. The difference between them lies in the depth of aquifers, service life and cost. The preferred option is to install water wells.

A drilling well is a special structure (a work—out or a cavity in the bowels of the earth) of a cylindrical shape, with a length much larger than the diameter.

The devices are divided by depth and method of penetration. The depth of the well is determined by the location of the aquifers and the required quality of the liquid. Based on the terrain, aquifers are located in the earth's crust in different ways.

If the landscape is flat, then there is a high probability that water lies around the perimeter. If there are hills, it is recommended to drill in the lowlands. The classification of structures contains several varieties.

Abyssinian Well

It was first implemented by the British engineer Norton in the 19th century. The maximum depth reaches 10-15m. The design consists of a set of pipes with a diameter of up to 60 mm, which are assembled together by a threaded connection. At the end of the last link is the "needle filter".

This is a sharp tip that performs several functions: it penetrates the ground when installing a well and cleans the water from large fractions and polluting particles. The installation of the abyssinian consists in lifting the pipe with a tripod and driving it into the ground.

The advantages include compact size, the possibility of placement in any free zone, ease of maintenance and low financial costs.

The liquid rises forcibly, in the classical way — by a hand pump. Photos of the Abyssinian downhole are shown below.

Sand well

The structure is deepened by 15-40m. The trunk is formed by a pipe with a cross-section of 100-180mm. At its end there is a stainless filter element welded to the first link of the drilling column. The average service life of the product with constant operation is 15 years.

When silting, polluting the well, it is washed. If the process did not lead to the desired result, then drilling of a new trunk located near the previous one will be required.

Among the positive aspects, we can single out a democratic price compared to an artesian well, a lower content of dissolved iron.

Artesian well (for limestone)

Structurally, it resembles a sand well. The main difference is the absence of a filter mesh in the lower section of the pipes and the depth of the source. Water from such structures comes from aquifers located in the limestone thickness. Due to this, it turns out clean, with a small degree of mineralization.


  • Efficiency. It is capable of providing consumers with liquid in a volume from 1 to 3 m3 / hour.
  • Continuous water supply. The water output is not affected by the operating time of the pump. With a five-minute or two-hour mode, the debit is the same.
  • Bacteriological purity. Artesian layers are practically not subject to contamination from the upper layer of the soil, sewage.
  • Long service life. The operation of a well with one pipe takes place for 20-30 years. When using 2 pipes (the plastic one is inserted into the iron one), it functions for up to 50 years.

There is only one significant drawback — the high price.

Drilling technologies of different types of wells

Independent drilling of artesian wells for water is a time—consuming and complex process. It is preferable to use the services of special organizations. Abyssinian and sand wells "turnkey" is a completely different matter.

The most popular are screw, rotary and shock-rope types of drilling. All of them are made manually or mechanized. The technologies differ in the method of destruction and extraction of the rock.

Screw drilling is considered to be the most budget option. It is produced using a special screw mechanism — a screw. Rotating, the drill cuts into the soil. The destroyed soil gets to the surface with blades. The limitation of auger drilling is the type of soil. Only unstable rocks are drilled well. On rocky surfaces, the auger is powerless.

The rotary method will help to drill the rocks. The tool is a drill pipe, at the end of which there is a sharoshechny chisel. Receiving rotation from the drive of the installation, the edges of the chisel dissect the ground. The soil is raised to the surface with drilling mud, which is pumped into the pipe by a pump.

Shock-rope technology is the slowest of all. The essence lies in the use of jelly. It is a piece of pipe with thick walls. On its upper part there is a cutout for soil extraction, and on the bottom there is a ball or petal valve. Hitting the ground, the valve opens and captures the soil.

Instructions for the construction of a wellDetermine the drilling location.

  • Prepare the tools: drill (auger, chute), winch, rods, pump, shovel and pipes for casing. Creating a deep well is impossible without a drilling rig. Its height is chosen slightly more than the total length of the rod.
  • Dig a pit 1.5x1.5x2m. Protect the walls of such a recess with boards or plywood. The pit is necessary to prevent the shedding of the surface layers of the soil during drilling.
  • The assembled drilling tool is installed vertically and immersed in the ground. Every 50cm. the drill is removed from the ground using a winch and cleaned. Drilling continues until the aquifer is reached.
  • After water is detected, casing pipes are installed and a caisson is made. A caisson is a chamber for placing a pump. A common material for its construction is plastic, brick, concrete or metal.
  • Pumping equipment is connected.

The beginning of the work is not very difficult. The drill easily bites into the soil. But with each new dive, drilling is getting harder. If the drill is stuck and does not rise to the surface, it is recommended to turn it counterclockwise and try to get it.

Choosing a pump for lifting water from a well

The final stage in providing the house with water is its rise from the source. Pumps for wells are responsible for this.

Surface and submersible models are distinguished at the installation site. The first include devices operating on the principle of suction. They are suitable for wells up to 8 m. Surface pumps will be an excellent choice for the Abyssinian well.

This type is not suitable for an artesian or filtration well. Therefore, it is necessary to purchase a submersible product. When choosing it, they start from the depth of the well.

The passport of each pump contains data on the maximum height to which water can rise. It is better to purchase aggregates with a small margin of productivity, i.e. for a well with a length of 60 m, choose a pump designed for a depth of 70 m.

Important moment — automatic protection from idle. If the water stopped coming to the mechanism, but the pump continues to work, this may cause overheating. Automation is time to cut the power and save the pump from damage.

By design, centrifugal and vibration pumps are distinguished. The water supply in the first case is carried out by a paddle wheel, and in the second — by an oscillating membrane.

The advantage of vibrating machines lies in their price, ease of installation and repair. But over time, the soil or casing pipe may collapse from the vibration effect. Experts advise considering vibration units as a temporary option.

A centrifugal pump is safer. It is selected depending on the performance, size and maximum working depth.

Photo of a water well