Unabi — an overview of the most useful properties. Instructions from a pro with a step-by-step description (70 photos)
Gardeners who like to experiment often seek to "tame" exotic plants. Many attempts to acquire a subtropical resident end in failure. This does not apply to unabi. An unpretentious culture feels great growing in the middle zone of Russia.
Endurance, productivity, possession of useful properties are increasingly encouraging gardeners to plant. Viewing photos of the unabi tree, familiarization with information about planting and care will help to establish the desire to grow this foreigner on your site.
The Chinese date, one of the names of unabi, betrays its origin. Certain provinces of India and Iran are fighting for the right to be considered domesticated plants. But China is still recognized as the true Homeland.
Many people are interested in where else unabi grows. The natural habitat is subtropics. Therefore, the plant can be found in many countries of America, Africa, Asia.
Externally, unabi is a prickly deciduous shrub, or trees up to 10 m tall. In our latitudes, the culture rarely exceeds 3 m. Small trees have a sparse crown.
The skeletal trunk is covered with a dense layer of bark. The branches contain rare thorns. Leaves on a compact petiole, simple, resemble an ellipse. The relief of the surface is created by 3 main veins. The leaf plate has a smooth, leathery structure.
The flowers are pale green, small, exude a noble aroma. Mature fruits of brown shades, rounded, elongated, have a slightly cotton, sweet taste. Studying the photo of unabi will give a more visual idea of the plant
Useful properties: unabi application options
The plant is widely used in various fields of activity. The young foliage of the tree contains a large amount of vitamin C. This part of the plant is also actively used in sericulture. Due to the high nutritional value of the leaves, rapid feeding of silkworms becomes possible.
The durable wood of the plant serves as an excellent raw material for the manufacture of musical instruments. Bark and roots are used in the leather business. They are rich in tannins. In addition, the branched root system prevents the destruction of the integrity of the soil in the area of ravines, slopes.
In China, the birthplace of the tree, the culture is actively used in folk medicine. The plant is famous for its tonic, soothing, sedative, diuretic effect.
In traditional medicine (pharmacology), biologically active additives are made from unabi. The use of fruit is especially indicated for those who suffer from high blood pressure, blood sugar, lack of iron and other vitamins and minerals.
The useful properties of unabi are not limited to this. The main value of a tree, especially for gardeners of our strip, is its fruits. They are characterized by a high content:
- vitamins, trace elements;
- mineral salts;
- sugars of high digestibility.
Due to the combination of the above, as well as many other active substances, fruits are recognized as a product of high nutritional value. They are used fresh, and also processed in every possible way (dried, boiled, candied fruits are made). The removed fruits are perfectly preserved (when cooled for 1-2 months).
Cultivation in the middle latitudes: difficulties in selecting varieties
For many years of purposeful breeding of unabi, many varieties of this plant have been created. Each variety has its own characteristics, requires certain conditions, care.
The choice of unabi varieties suitable for growing in central Russia is small. Although late flowering, frost resistance, the ability to regenerate makes the culture adapted to the unstable conditions of the middle latitudes.
The temperate continental climate, characterized by long cold winters and short humid summers, still leaves an imprint on the choice of culture. The most suitable are low-growing varieties (shrubs or grafted trees with a low stem), as well as small-fruited variants.
When choosing, it is necessary to pay attention to the period of fruit ripening (it should be early), resistance to cold.
There are a number of suitable varieties that have been repeatedly tested by gardeners, but it is more convenient to get a guaranteed result yourself (to grow a tree from a stone).
Reproduction of unabi: selection of an option suitable for the middle band
Cultivation of unabi can be started in various ways. Suitable for this:
- reproduction by dividing the roots;
- the use of seeds.
Given the characteristics of varieties suitable for the middle latitudes, the most suitable breeding options are: the use of cuttings and seeds. It is worth remembering that unabi is classified as cross-pollinated plants, so 2-4 seedlings of different varieties should be planted at the same time at a close distance.
Propagation of unabi by cuttings is carried out using lignified or green shoots. Cuttings are cut during pruning (in spring or autumn). Storage of the material can be carried out in wet sawdust (for example, in the coolness of the cellar).
Technically, vaccination is done in the traditional way:
- on the rootstock, a wildling is cut under the stump (the distance from the ground level is 5-6 cm);
- make a cut on the bark, used for the subsequent insertion of the stalk with a kidney (about 2 cm);
- the area of the "operation" is tied with polyethylene, the open edge at the top of the cuttings is treated with garden pitch;
- the plant is dug (1/3 of the height).
In summer, before flowering (in early June), you can try to reproduce with green cuttings. It will take about a month for the planting material to take root.
To reproduce by seeds, it is necessary to select a stone from a ripe fruit. Storage of the material for sowing can take place for 3 years. In winter, the seeds are subject to stratification.
Before planting, the shell of the stone is punctured, the specimen is placed in warm water (they help future germination). Sowing is carried out in March. Seedlings with 2-3 leaves are placed in the open ground.
It is not difficult to set a goal and get a subtropical resident on your site. Moreover, planting and caring for unabi is possible even for a novice gardener. It is enough just to choose the right variety and act according to the tips of experienced gardeners.