Plot layout — zoning and rules of arrangement of elements in landscape design (120 photos)
Having become the happy owner of a suburban plot, a person faces several problems. One of the main ones is the layout. It is necessary to optimally mark out the territory, think over the location of residential buildings, landscape elements, determine the overall design of construction.
To answer all the questions that have arisen, it is necessary to draw up a detailed plan of the land plot.
Any planning in construction begins with an assessment of the conditions in which it will be carried out. This stage describes the characteristics of the built-up area. When planning a land plot , the owner is required to take into account:
- The relief of the surface. The latter can be flat, hilly, and also have ravines or large stones. All this affects the overall layout of buildings and the laying of communications;
- Soil quality. It is necessary to determine the presence of a fertile layer. Or rather its depth. If it is less than 10 cm, then even lawn grass cannot be grown on such land. Additional delivery of soil is required;
- The presence of groundwater. With their high level, it is mandatory to include a drainage system in the plan;
- Climate. Depending on the climatic zone, the composition of the plantings should be carefully selected;
- Size, shape. Depending on the shape and size, the landscape design of the site will be developed.
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Various methods are used in the development of the project. The most common are:
Geometric. It is used for smooth surface relief. Distinctive features are considered to be the geometric arrangement of buildings and plantings, as well as clear, even boundaries of all elements of the landscape.
For example, trees, bushes, flower beds are arranged in the form of rectangles or squares with even borders. It is also possible to plant plants in the form of other geometric shapes corresponding to the general style of the plan.
Landscape. It is used when the ground surface is uneven. The location of buildings and plants does not follow clear lines. On the contrary, asymmetry is applied in the design of the entire exterior. For example, ravines and hills are preserved or created, paths are laid with curved lines, trees and plants are planted according to the owner's imagination, and not geometric shapes.
With this layout scheme, all artificial elements are organically integrated into the natural landscape, which allows you to create a more natural design.
Mixed. Combines landscape and geometric features in different proportions. It does not have clear rules of construction. The most popular among the owners of dachas.
Division of the site into zones
After choosing a technique, zoning should be done. When creating a project, they usually allocate: a residential area, a recreation area, auxiliary buildings, green spaces and a vegetable garden.
10% of the entire territory is usually allocated for residential buildings, 75% for plants and beds, the remaining 15% of the area is allocated for household buildings, recreation areas, paths and decorative elements.
In the planning project, the most important thing is the location of the house. If the allotment has a simple rectangular shape, then the house is located based on the convenience of the entrance or for aesthetic reasons.
With a non-standard form, the choice of the optimal place depends on several factors. For example, if the plot has a narrow long shape, then the house is built with the end face to the main entrance. And when the landscape is tilted, the structure is placed on a hill. Thus, it is possible to avoid flooding of the foundation and basements.
Place of rest
It is recommended to place recreation areas in the backyard. If it is a gazebo, a summer kitchen or a playground, then they should be located in a well-visible place and preferably in the shade.
Owners of plots with a sauna and a garage should correctly place their buildings. The place for the garage is selected depending on the access roads. For safety reasons, it is advisable to place the garage on the other side of the playground. Learn also about canopies.
The bathhouse should not stand in front of the house. The best option would be a remote corner of the plot, hidden from the street by trees. It is better to build all auxiliary buildings for household purposes closer to the fence and hide them with bushes.
Plants and vegetable garden
After working out the plan of the buildings, you can proceed to the placement of green spaces. It is better to place the zone for crop production on the south side.
But it must be borne in mind that the buildings will give shade. In such places, it is not recommended to plant beds for vegetables and fruits. The location of ornamental plants depends only on the imagination of the owner and on the design project.
Drawing up a plan diagram
Now, having data on the nature of the landscape and using planning and zoning techniques, it is necessary to draw up a plan diagram. The latter is created for the sake of clarity of the entire project. To do this, you can contact professionals, but it is recommended to make a blueprint yourself.
Take a piece of paper. If necessary, trim it to the desired shape. Then make all the buildings, plants and other elements that you want to see on your diagram out of colored paper. At the same time, do not forget to take into account the approximate scale. Next, start placing objects according to the plan, move them, compose them to your taste.
The plan must necessarily reflect:
- Location of residential premises;
- Household and auxiliary buildings;
- Schemes of communications and power lines.
The scheme of volumetric models. The last glue paper or vylepsit from clay. Further, the layouts are placed on the plan and guide them into the light. This allows you to determine where they will fall shadows on a Sunny day.
If you have any difficulties with the plan, we recommend that you contact specialized sites. There you will find photos of various site layouts and accurate calculations of the plans.
Recommendations of specialists
When planning, we recommend using tips from builders and designers.
- To protect the backyard from prying eyes, you can place the house right on the border with the street;
- If the plot has a slope, then the house is placed on an elevation or in the middle of the slope, while it is necessary to make a filling;
- Trees are not planted close to the house. This is due to the fact that the house will be heavily shaded. There is also a possibility that in a few years the roots of the tree may damage the foundation of the house;
- To create a favorable atmosphere, maximally protected from the sounds of the street and dust, you should build a house in the middle or in the depth of the plot. And plant trees around the perimeter;
- When developing a plan, it is necessary to take into account fire and sanitary standards.
Planning is an individual and creative process. There are a lot of layout options. Each of them depends not only on the landscape, geology, climate, but also on the preferences of the owner and his imagination.
The main thing to remember is that all objects and elements of the plan should be designed in the same style and harmoniously complement each other. Only then will your layout look like a single composition.
Photo of the plot layout