Pear — what is the benefit for a person? Instructions from planting to harvesting for novice gardeners
Pear is one of the five most popular fruit trees among gardeners. Pear is loved not only for its exquisite taste and aroma, but also for its hypoallergenic nature. Pears are also considered an excellent medicine for the urinary system, because the fruits of pears contain arbutin, useful for the urinary system and kidneys. In addition, pears contain a large amount of vitamins and trace elements that favorably affect the health of the liver and kidneys.
However, growing pears is not an easy matter. Unlike apple trees, pear trees do not like frost and sudden temperature changes. They often freeze. Therefore, to get the first harvest, it is not enough just to plant a tree, it is important to properly monitor it.
Planting pears should begin with choosing the optimal time for planting. In different regions, the planting of pears is carried out at different times.
In the north of Russia, it is recommended to plant pear trees in the spring, before the buds bloom, i.e. until the end of April. Then the seedling will take root before the onset of cold weather and will survive the winter well.In the south of the country, spring comes earlier, so the optimal time for planting pears is considered the beginning of autumn.
It is also important to choose the right varieties of pears, which are divided into three types:
- early maturation;
- medium - ripened;
The first type is ideal for the Black Earth region, it includes such varieties as "Yellow summer", "Tonkovetka" and "Lada". Varieties "Seedless" and "Autumn bergamot" are suitable for planting in the middle lane. Also suitable and late-ripening varieties, such as "New Year", "Venus" and "Severyanka".
Where to plant pears?
If you follow all the rules for planting pears, then the chance that the tree will successfully overwinter and bring a rich harvest increases. Due to the fact that pears like warmth, it is recommended to plant spring and autumn varieties of pears in sunny areas sheltered from sharp gusts of wind.
Trees do not tolerate moisture, so when choosing a place, it is worth considering that pears will not survive stagnation of water. The ideal place for planting is a hill, under which underground water does not flow. The seedling will not take root on clay soils either.
In the neighborhood of other trees, pears are unpretentious, they will quietly take root next to apple trees. The only tree next to which a pear will not be very comfortable is a rowan tree. This is explained by the fact that they are susceptible to attacks by the same pests, and if one tree is infected, the second one will suffer.
Planting pit for pears
Prepare a recess for planting pears in the fall, even if you plan to plant trees in the spring. During the winter period, the soil will sag, and it will be possible not to be afraid of sagging of the tree, which is dangerous because the root neck may be blocked by the earth and the pear will die.
The depth of the pit for planting is determined by the size of the tree roots. For a pear, a suitable depth is 40-50 cm, with a width of 1 meter.
To increase the fertility of the soil, several buckets of earth with humus and peat can be poured into the pit, the pit, of course, should be dug deeper. You can also fertilize a pear with superphosphate or ash.
How to choose a seedling?
Professionals advise using two-year seedlings for planting. Special attention when selecting seedlings is paid to the condition of the tree itself, the young shoot should be elastic and not dry, with smooth bark of the same color.
The height of the seedling is usually 70-80cm. The roots on the cut should be moist and light. In order not to make a mistake in choosing, we advise you to look at photos of pear seedlings that have successfully taken root.
Preparation for planting should begin with immersion of the root system of the seedling in a container with a solution of a root stimulator, for example, kornevin. It should also be added to the water that will spill the planting recess. Long roots from the side and in the center are cut off by ten centimeters before planting, and the leaves, if there are any, are torn off.
Planting a pear
At the bottom of the planting pit, a hill of fertile soil is poured, pear roots are straightened along this hill, and then sprinkled with earth.
The trunk of the tree should be slightly shaken and trampled, in order to avoid the appearance of air voids.
2/3 of the recesses are filled with earth, and then filled with 10 liters of settled water, it is important that it be at room temperature.
When the moisture is absorbed, the pit is filled to the end. The root neck of the seedling should be 3-5 cm higher than the soil.
Novice gardeners can determine the location of the root neck by color, at this point the greenish bark of the trunk turns into the brownish color of the roots.
Now the soil is compacted by hand, and a small roller with a height of 5 cm and a diameter of 50 cm is made around the seedling. Another bucket of water is poured into the circle
When the water is completely absorbed, the soil is mulched without approaching the trunk by 10 cm. And a seedling of an autumn or winter pear is tied to a support. After watering with a warm period, the soil should be mulched. But in order to prevent the rotting of the young stem, the mulch should not be close to the trunk.
In order for the pear to grow intensively in the first years and the crown to form, it is necessary to provide it with nitrogen nutrition. The annual nitrogen rate is divided into three parts, two of which are introduced in spring and one in summer. If you use both mineral and organic fertilizers, then the portion of minerals should be reduced by one third.
In the second year, in the spring, it is necessary to fertilize the soil around the trunk with ammonium nitrate, and also do not forget to mulch with peat and humus. If there is not enough potassium in the soil on the site, then it is worth increasing the dose of fertilizers containing this trace element, pears love it very much.
Young seedlings often suffer from a lack of moisture, pest attacks, bad weather and diseases. Therefore, in the first years it is worth taking special care of the trees, and if necessary, treat pears.
The most important aspects in the care of seedlings are fertilizing fertilizers, constant weeding and proper watering in spring and summer, which is best carried out in the morning or evening using sprayers.
Pears need regular pruning, as they require a large amount of sunlight for full development. Also, pruning allows the pear not to waste energy on growing young shoots, but to let all the useful trace elements ripen the fruits.
And this has a positive effect on the quality of the crop. And the harvest will be easier and more convenient, if not to allow the tree to grow up, but it is worth noting that the pears are quite high trees.
So how to trim a pear correctly?
To begin with, thin out the crown of the plant so that the sun warms the fertile branches and trunk. It is recommended to cut the trunk by a quarter so that the plant does not stretch upwards.After pruning, the places of the cuts should be treated with a composition that can be bought in a store for gardeners.
Pruning of trees should be carried out from the moment of planting, this will ensure the proper development of the crown of the plant. By the 2nd year after planting, the height of seedlings is a maximum of 50 cm. This promotes the growth of the lower branches.
The pruning tool is most often chosen by a pruner. But sometimes you have to resort to a garden saw when you need to cut down strong thick branches of an old tree.
If you have observed all the conditions and rules for planting pears, then your labors will certainly be rewarded with a large harvest of incredibly juicy and fragrant pears.