Iris flower: planting, growing and care. 100 photos of beautiful flowers on the plot
Irises are very delicate and eye-catching plants. Without them, it is impossible to imagine green spaces in a suburban area, in the private sector and in a city park. They will decorate any flower bed, any front garden with greenery. They are so popular that there are about 800 species with a rich variety of shapes and shades. You can find such names of them as a killer whale, a cockerel.
In botany, depending on the shape of the flower, all species are divided into two large groups:
Bearded. This variety of irises received such an interesting and non-floral name due to the hairs having a richer color on the lower bent petals.
Not bearded. In this species, the outer petals of the flowers are smooth and have no hairs.
Both are rhizomatous plants. Among flower growers, bearded ones are the most favorite. They are more common and bloom in various beautiful shades.
Separately, I must say that there are also bulbous irises. They are divided into 3 separate species: iridodictium, juno, xyphium. The root system of these flowers is the bulb, it is also the organ of reproduction.
Biology of flowers
Iris belongs to the kasatikov family. It is a perennial plant. It looks like an orchid and has a rich color. The stems can be either single or in bundles, simple or branched. The leaves are gray – green, pointed in the form of a sword, thin like gladioli, concentrated at the base of the stem. The flowers are single, large, with an interesting elegant shape and color from light tones to dark.
The flower is formed of six petals in two tiers: the outer three are curved outward downwards and are called fouls, and the inner three grow upwards, they are also called standards. Photos of irises with various shapes and colors can be easily found on the Internet. The flowering period begins in May and ends at the end of July.
Features of cultivation and care
At first glance, it may seem that in order to get such beauty on your site, you need a very difficult care. In fact, growing and caring for them is a simple process. It is enough to know some of the features of these plants.
Due to the structural features of rhizomatous irises, their root system grows horizontally. At the same time, the roots very often come to the surface and thereby become bare. This can lead to the fact that during winter frosts, they can freeze. To prevent this from happening, it is advisable to sprinkle them with earth or peat for the winter, and clean them in the spring.
Initially, the roots of the iris are located in the surface layer of the soil. For this reason, loosening the soil near the roots must be done very carefully so as not to harm the root system.
These flowers are constant fidgets and will move around the site. In one year , the rhizomes can move away from the original place by 5-7 cm. To preserve the evenness of the rows, they must be planted so that the fan of leaves is located along the row.
It is advisable to fertilize 3 times per season: the first – after removing the shelter or mulch, the second – in June, when budding begins and the third fertilizing — in July 2-3 weeks after flowering.
Irises grow to the side and usually young roots and new links appear near already faded shoots. The outer shoots give flowering, and the inner shoots and roots dry out and die. As a result, dry dead rhizomes remain in the middle of the bush. In this case, they are removed and seated. It is advisable to do this in 3-4 years.
At the end of summer, all dried and old leaves are removed, and the remaining ones are cut in half. At the same time, the flowers will look well-groomed and green, and diseases will not develop on the old dead parts of the plant.
What do beginners need to know in order to have on these beauties?
Place. Both rhizomatous and bulbous varieties like warmth and light, so they are planted in well-lit and heated areas. Rhizomatous are less demanding of the site, so they can grow both in partial shade and in the shade. However, irises will not please with flowers in the shade, we must remember this.
Soil treatment before planting.The soil should be dug up and fertilized with humus and mineral fertilizers. It is necessary to dig up the soil to the depth of the bayonet of the shovel. The applied fertilizers must be evenly distributed throughout the planting area. If the soil is clay, heavy, then it is necessary to add sand and peat.
The time of planting irises. It is best to perform in summer and autumn, when flowering comes to an end, and new roots appear. At the same time, it is important to do this when the flower bud has not yet appeared, and the young roots have already formed. This will allow young plants to start before winter. High-quality transplanting of flowers every 3-4 years will give a lush and bright flowering.
How to make a landing?
For rhizomatous varieties, a vegetative method of reproduction is suitable. New processes of the root system are used as planting material. To do this, the root system is divided into parts so that each has leaves and rhizomes.
The leaves are cut by half, and the roots by a third. Everything is inspected, rotten and dry parts are removed. With the help of a solution of potassium permanganate, it is disinfected and dried.
The soil must be loosened before planting and all weeds must be removed. In the hole where the young plant will be planted, a small slide is made, on which the roots are placed and spread around. Be sure to water the young plant. Bulbous irises for 2-3 years near the parent bulb give a lot of new ones. The first shoots appear a year after planting.
Large bulbs are dug out, dried and left until autumn. Iris bulbs are also planted in pre-loosened soil, cleared of weeds. The bulbs are lowered into the prepared pits, very carefully, so as not to damage the roots and sprinkle with earth. Then abundantly watered.
Possible diseases and pests
In order for flowers to delight with their colors, they must be protected from pests and diseases.
The most dangerous disease for them is bacteriosis (soft rot of rhizomes). At the same time, the affected flowers begin to grow poorly, their leaves turn brown and begin to dry up. The rot gradually affects the inner part of the rhizome. In this case, the plant dies. It is possible to fight this disease only by removing the affected parts of the plant and destroying them.
If brown spots appear on the leaves or there is no wax coating, then this indicates that the plant is suffering from heterosporosis. In this case, it is important to remove dried, damaged leaves. You can use fungicide treatment with copper and zinc.
The bear does not pass by the roots. It nibbles the roots and stems. To combat it, it is necessary to dig deep into the soil and set traps.
Thrips (small insects up to 1 mm) damage both stems and rhizomes. For prevention, it is necessary to dig up the soil, remove weeds. In case of severe damage, treat plants with organophosphate solutions.
Slugs are big fans of irises. Damage the leaves in the center of the plant, and sometimes flowers. To combat them, you can use superphosphate, scattering it around the plant or metaldehyde.
Paying a little attention to this plant, caring for and taking care of it, you can get beautiful and elegant flowers on the site. They can be used to create beautiful bouquets of irises, or not cut, but left in the front garden to decorate your plot and create a beautiful and fragrant atmosphere near the house.