How to make a well — instructions on how to build with your own hands on the site (100 photos)
Not all owners of suburban areas can boast of centralized water supply. There are houses where it has not been held yet. And some summer residents strive to provide themselves with the most comfortable accommodation in a country house. Therefore, they equip additional, alternative sources of water supply.
In such cases, there is a need to determine how to build a well as quickly and economically as possible.
If you have sufficient financial resources, then you can drill a well on the site with the help of specialized teams. But it is quite expensive – not everyone can afford such a pleasure. Therefore, there remains another option – to dig a well with your own hands.
Features of aquifers
When preparing for the construction of a water source, it is necessary to determine its presence and the basic properties of the soil. It is important to take into account that there are 3 main types of groundwater:
Verkhovodka – lies at a depth of 1-2 m, but it is not suitable for use without complex pre-cleaning. It is necessary to exclude the ingress of such water into the well.
Ground — most suitable for drinking and household needs.
Artesian – have the highest parameters for safety, nutritional properties, chemical composition. They lie deep enough, are not polluted.
How to find the right place
When determining the site for digging, you should study the surrounding area. You can find out from neighbors who have already carried out this kind of work. Naturally, if wells are already installed near your site, then there is a high probability of finding suitable water on your land.
It should be remembered that clay and sandstone layers have the greatest degree of water-bearing capacity.
You can only confirm the presence of water with complete certainty by drilling. But this method is expensive. Therefore, they use indirect methods. A well in the country can be placed where:
- there is a large accumulation of moss on the ground, and there are a lot of midges and mosquitoes in the air;
- green spaces are concentrated even during a drought;
- there is flooding of basements;
- fogs are frequent when there are no reservoirs nearby.
Biolocation will also help you. To do this, take two brass sticks. The length should be about 500 mm, and the diameter should be 2-3 mm. They are bent at an angle of 90 degrees, but so that one end is equal to 100 mm. With these sticks in their hands, they walk around the site. In the presence of an aquifer, they intersect.
It is also necessary to take into account the requirements of a sanitary nature. After all, water should be useful and safe. It is recommended to construct the object:
- at a distance of at least 30 m. from the places of occurrence of economic pollution falling directly into the ground;
- in the absence of a sewer that has no bottom;
- on a more elevated site to exclude the ingress of discharges from neighbors;
- in accessibility to water consumers.
When to buildThe most suitable period of the year for digging a structure is the end of summer-the beginning of autumn, when the groundwater level is minimal.
In winter, when there is also not so much water, it is much more difficult and impractical to carry out work.
If you are going to drill a well with the involvement of a construction company, then this parameter is irrelevant. The presence of powerful drilling equipment allows you to work at any time of the year.
If you have decided to make a well yourself, then you need to decide on the methods of work and the type of construction. All further actions will depend on this.
Types of well structures
It is possible to build a tubular well. However, its arrangement requires special drilling, so this option is used for the construction of columns, which will be used by many residents of the settlement.
For a private house, the mine construction method is most suitable. In this case, the trunk is dug manually with shovels. Although you can also attract specialists with special drilling rigs.
Selection of material
Previously, wooden well structures were popular. Now this option is less common in the arrangement of country houses. Although in our time, you can equip the mine with a log cabin or lower a box made of pre-assembled boards into the trunk.
Currently, a concrete well is more common. It is made of high-strength reinforced reinforced concrete rings. Their size is usually up to 0.8 m in height with a diameter of 1 m. There are special slots.
The rings are successively lowered into the shaft and secured. This option is characterized by strength and durability of operation, resistance to soil sediment and protection from seepage of the upper water.
You can buy rings for the construction from manufacturers. But there is also the possibility of self-manufacturing. For this purpose, high-quality concrete is used, for example 400, with additives from plasticizers, as well as hydrophobizers and stabilizers. The latter increase moisture resistance.
In the manufacture of concrete, cement, sand and crushed stone are used in a ratio of 1:2:3 or 1:2.5:4. In this case, the mass of water will be about 50-70% of the mass of cement.
The composition of the concrete type well
Structurally , as part of a well structure , there are:
- a water intake located in the lower part of the structure and collecting and filtering incoming water;
- the trunk, which is an underground part of the structure, restraining the earth and preventing the seepage of the upper water;
- a head in the aboveground part that protects the system from contamination from the outside and freezing in winter.
Construction of a concrete well
The arrangement of the stem part is easier to carry out using factory-made rings. The height of each block must be selected based on the possibilities of their lifting and lowering into the mine
And the diameter of the ring should be convenient for being inside a person when digging. To facilitate the work, a winch or tripod is used. The work should be carried out by 2-3 people.
Arrangement of the trunk
First you need to dig a hole corresponding to the diameter of the concrete ring. After that, the first structural element is placed into it with the help of a winch and the ground is continued to be knocked out from the inside until the ring is equal to the ground level. Then the next one is pulled up and placed on top of the ring that has fallen into the mine.
The worker inside the structure continues to dig up the soil and knock it out from under the installed blocks. The rings gradually sink down under their weight. The excavated earth, along with stones, rises buckets to the surface.
It is necessary to put individual elements more tightly, fixing them in a stationary state with the help of metal brackets. You can see this feature in the photo of the well, which is in the digging stage.
As we approach the three-meter depth, the temperature drops to +10 degrees, and the air movement worsens. To ventilate the face, an umbrella is opened and moved up and down the shaft in an open form.
The installation of the rings is carried out before reaching the aquifer. At this moment, the temperature drops, and small fontanelles appear on the walls. Further digging will be quite difficult, but it needs to be done as quickly as possible.
This method of work is as safe as possible. Although you can also dig the mine completely first, and then put rings in it. But this option requires special skills and is associated with the risks of rock collapse.
Water intake and filter
When the aquifer has become available, it is necessary to clean the bottom and build a bottom filter. After all, at this moment opaque water begins to accumulate below. It needs to be pumped out, dig out another 15 cm, level the bottom and clean the dirt by lifting it up.
River sand is poured onto the bottom. The thickness of the filling should be 25 cm. Gravel or medium-sized crushed stone is placed on top of a 20–centimeter layer, and then another 20 cm of large crushed stone.
It is recommended to pre-wash crushed stone and gravel with a solution of bleach. It often happens when the aquifer is very liquid, water flows quickly, and the bottom begins to swim. Then you should put boards with slits on the bottom, thus building a flooring. It will be necessary to lay all the layers of the filter on top of it.
So, you have successfully equipped the well trunk, built a filter. Now we need to protect the inside. To do this, waterproofing is carried out using a mixture of PVA glue + cement. Such a solution is mixed well, forming a homogeneous mass. The work can be carried out in two stages:
- the liquid mass is applied to all seams with a brush;
- then the spatula is sealed with a thicker solution.
You can also purchase a ready-made waterproofing material that does not contain bitumen.
It is also important to protect the outer part of the well structure. After all, thawed or rainwater through the soil can get inside. Therefore, a trench 0.5-0.7 m wide is made along the outer edge of the rings located at the top of the well.
Then they build a clay castle, stuffing a trench with this material. At ground level, a slope is formed in the direction from the well to drain sedimentary water. The site should preferably be concreted. The upper rings can be additionally wrapped with a film.
Before you start using the water, you need to pump it out. Do this for 2-3 weeks, after which the water is given for laboratory tests.
The construction of the head
The outer part should also be finished accordingly. Concrete rings need to be faced with stone, plastered or covered with wood. The constructed cover for the well will help protect it from contamination. A lock is mounted on it. At the same time, it is necessary to install a gate for winding the chain at least 200 mm in diameter.
When mounting the handle in the axis gate, you should additionally put 2 washers from the handle and 1 piece in the opposite part. This way you will extend the life of the lifting mechanism elements.
The aboveground part of the well can be designed not only in the form of a house, but also by installing a well crane. They often leave an open house with decoration and decorative decoration.
You can make a decorative well for the design of the landscape of the infield. It will decorate the yard, as well as cover some infrastructure elements, such as manholes. In the log house of such a well, you can successfully plant beautiful plants.
Digging a well with your own hands is not too difficult a task. Anyone can cope with it if they follow the safety precautions and the proposed instructions. As a result, your home will be provided with clean drinking water all year round or during the breakdowns of centralized water supply.
Photos of modern wells