Hazel (common) — 80 photos. Methods of reproduction and cultivation of shrubs in the suburban area
Surely there is not a single person on earth who has not tasted hazelnuts. It is used in many ways in cooking: second courses, salads, snacks. Very successfully hazelnut is used in desserts. But few people know how it grows and what a hazel bush looks like.
Hazel owes its name to fish. The leaves of this plant are very similar to the body of a bream. They are just as large and jagged at the edges.
Considering the description of hazel, it can be highlighted that it is rarely found in nature in the form of a tree, most often it grows as a shrub. It belongs to the birch family due to its male flowers, which are collected in earrings during flowering.
Female flowers are represented by buds that open in spring. They have only two ovules in one nest. After that, they turn into nuts with a diameter of up to 2 centimeters and 2.5 centimeters in length. All young fruits are reliably protected by a woody pluska or husk. All varieties of this nut can be eaten.
Cultivation in the country
Before you start growing a young seedling, you need to decide on the place. This shrub does not like sudden changes in daily temperatures.
With the fluctuation of heat and cold, he risks getting burned or freezing, which will affect the overall well-being of the bush as a whole. It is also possible to deteriorate the quality and quantity of the crop. It will be appropriate to protect the hazel from the sultry sun rays.
Shade should be moderate. If the leaves began to change their color, it may mean that the shading is too strong. In this case, it needs to be reduced, but it is not worth removing at all.
Afraid of hazelnuts and drafts. When choosing a place, you should make sure that it is not blown from all sides. Ideally, it is planted next to the house. In this case, one of the walls serves as a shield from the wind.
When it is not possible to plant a bush next to a building, then it is planted near spreading trees. The distance between them should be at least 4 meters. In other cases, you can plant a bush next to a hedge.
In addition, hazel does not like excessive humidity. Groundwater should not approach more than 1.5 meters to the place of nut growth. The plant should also be protected from floods. A large amount of water can harm the root system, which will subsequently affect the entire bush or tree. It can "get sick" or even die.
Planting a plant on the south side will help accelerate flowering. Although in this regard, you also need to be careful, because hazel, which bloomed earlier than expected, may suffer during the frost period. Ovaries suffer from a sharp cold snap, which can lead to a small harvest.
There are also a number of requirements for the soil. Neutral or slightly acidic loose earth with a pH level from 6 to 6.5 will do. Good drainage must be provided so that the water does not stagnate and does not spoil the root system.
It is best to fertilize the earth with compost humus and sand. This will provide improved air and water permeability. Having created high-quality care for hazel, you can count on harvesting the first harvest in 5 years after planting.
One can not hope that the young seedling will take root in rocky, sandy or swampy soil.
Methods of propagation of hazel
There are several ways to get a hazelnut in a suburban area:
Planting seeds. In spring or autumn, you can plant the nut itself directly. In the case of hazel, it is both a seed and a fruit at the same time.Nuts preparing for planting are kept in moist soil at a temperature of + 5 degrees.
Sprouted seeds are buried in the open ground to a depth of no more than 5 centimeters. The disadvantage of this method is that the new bush will not surpass the maternal one in terms of fruit size, there are exceptions, but rarely enough. The first harvest should be expected in 5-6 years.
Layering. In spring, the bent branches of the bush are dug into specially dug and fertilized grooves. The top of the layering is tied to pre-prepared stakes made of wood or metal.
Cuttings. For this method, a strengthened two-year-old stalk is used. Rooting takes place in peat soil with an admixture of sand. Regular watering with foliage irrigation will be required.
Vaccination. It is carried out with the help of buds or cuttings in the summer. The grafting material is prepared before or after the vegetative period. The most time-consuming method of propagation of hazelnuts, requiring careful care.
Division. Young shoots that already have their own root are separated from the mother plant. The length of the root should be at least 15 centimeters. This method is effective when there is a need to thin out the main bushes or form the correct rows of hazel.
Escape. A great way to preserve all the maternal properties of the shrub. A young shoot, but not younger than 3 years old, is separated from the main bush and transplanted into a greenhouse. There the plant stays until it gets stronger and grows to the desired size of the seedling.
The soil should be prepared for planting a hazel seedling. To do this, a pit is dug 80x80 centimeters and no more than 60 centimeters deep. Next, organic and mineral fertilizers are thrown into it. Leaves for humus in combination with potassium sulfate are best suited.
Do not forget about the fertile land from under the adult shrub. It is best to do this in the fall, two weeks before the planned planting of the young shoot in the open ground.
When preparing a pit for a seedling, it is necessary to take into account the degree of plant growth. For shrubs, the distance between seedlings should remain about 4 meters. In the case of trees, you can do 2.5 meters.
Planting in the ground
When the planting pit is fixed, it is time to prepare the seedling itself. First of all, its root system is checked. In a healthy plant, it is strong and has many branches. After making sure of this, it is cut off, leaving no more than 25 centimeters in length.
The roots are treated with a substance made of clay and manure for their additional protection and nutrition. Immediately after planting in the ground, abundant watering is required within 20 liters of water for each seedling.
Care and watering young bushes is not very complicated. 2 or 3 abundant watering for reunion boarding layer with the ground. This will allow not to worry about the nutrients for the next 5 years of plant growth.
With proper watering and care, the shrub will begin to grow small hazel from the roots. This should be stopped at an early stage. To do this, you need to dig out the process to the root and cut it out. If you miss this moment, the hazel will grow and begin to bear fruit poorly.
Nowadays there are about 17 types of hazel. The most common is considered to be ordinary hazel or hazelnut.
Large-fruited varieties include bear and lombard nuts, Catherine or red-leaved hazel.
All these samples of hazel can be seen in the photo.
As a result of the information received, it can be concluded that for the effective cultivation of hazel, it is necessary to prepare the soil in advance and choose a convenient method of plant propagation for yourself.