Grounding in a private house: quick installation, diagrams, 80 photos, videos. Step-by-step instructions for beginners
Household electrical appliances are becoming more and more, their total capacity is growing. The risks of electric shock are increasing. There was a need for protection. The operating rules say: grounding is an intentional connection of a piece of equipment or an electrical circuit with the ground. Three protection systems are used in everyday life:
A tool for traditional protection devices – a sledgehammer, a grinder, a bayonet shovel, a set of wrenches, a device for measuring insulation resistance.
Installation of contour grounding
Basically, the grounding contour is defined by a triangle, but there are also quadrangular, oval and linear. A trench is being dug in the shape of an equilateral triangle 70 centimeters wide, 50 centimeters deep with sides 120 centimeters long.
- corners with shelves of 50 millimeters.
- a rod with a diameter of 16 millimeters.
- pipes with a diameter of 2 inches .
- metal steel tape 4 centimeters wide, 4 millimeters thick.
We prepare the electrodes – we cut the pins 3 meters long. From one end we sharpen them, and from the other we weld pads for the convenience of scoring. Along the vertices of the triangle of the trench, we hammer the electrodes – pins, leaving 10 centimeters above the ground. With a steel tape, using welding, we tie the contour. Pins can be made from a rod, from a corner, or from a pipe.
From one of the vertices of the triangle closest to the house, we dig a trench with a depth of 50 centimeters, a width of 60 centimeters to connect the horizontal grounding to the inner part of the grounding of the house. The pins driven into the ground are called a vertical earthing device, and the tape tying them is called a horizontal one.
Welding joints must be very reliable, and therefore an experienced welder must perform welding work. At the end of the welding work, the joints are freed from slag and covered with a special, anti-corrosion coating. But they don't wear makeup!
It is not recommended to use existing pipelines of metal structures in the ground as earthing devices, they quickly collapse and pipelines too.
The disadvantage of the grounding systems discussed above is a large amount of excavation work, a significant area occupied by devices. If you buy metal, hire a welder, and do everything else yourself, it will cost a hundred dollars.
But recently, modular pin systems have appeared, which can be ordered over the Internet. The cost starts from three thousand rubles and the hassle is less, and it will turn out faster.
Installation of modular grounding
The modular grounding kit consists of copper–plated electrode pins, 1.5 meters long, with a thread with a diameter of 30 millimeters at the ends. Bronze coupling couplings, starting tips for different hardness of soils, a special, conductive lubricant and a guide coupling for clogging electrodes.
So, we take the first pin, screw the starting tip until it stops. On the other hand, we wind up the coupling, having previously lubricated it with a special lubricant until it stops. We twist the guide head into the coupling until it stops, so that it rests on the electrode, and not on the thread, to remove the load from the thread when the pin is clogged.
We insert the hammer of the puncher into the hole of the guide head, turn on the puncher, hold the pin vertically. After a minute, the electrode completely enters the ground.
We prepare the next pin – unscrew the guide washer, apply grease to the thread of the second pin, screw the second pin into the coupling sticking out from the first pin, screw the coupling onto the upper end of the second pin, and the guide head into it, turn on the puncher, one minute, done.
We measure the grounding, if the resistance suits, go to one and a half meters and repeat the operation. At the end of the work, it remains to connect the electrodes sticking out of the ground with a stranded copper wire using clamps from the kit with the inner contour of the house.
Installation of electrolytic grounding
The kit includes an l-shaped electrode made of stainless steel pipe, perforated, three meters long, filled with a special filler, four bags of clay – graphite powder, a clamp with a stranded copper wire for connection to the inner contour of the house
A trench is dug 50 centimeters deep and 3 meters long. The bottom of the trench is sprinkled with a clay-graphite mixture, an electrode is placed on it, bent part up. The remaining part of the clay–graphite mixture is poured onto the electrode and covered with soil.
A clamp with a stranded wire is installed on the part of the electrode going up to connect to the bus of the inner part of the grounding of the house, a head is put on for maintenance. Isolate the contact points with a special tape from a set with a hydrophobic coating. The time it takes for installation is 3 hours.
For greater confidence, you can install another type of protection on the shield, the so–called RCD, which reacts to the slightest short circuit in the electrical wiring system, reactions to currents in protected installations.
The essence of the RCD operation is that it fixes the difference between the incoming current and the returning one. If the difference exceeds the permissible norm, the mechanism of disconnection from the supply of electrical energy triggers, the RCD has become unconditional for social networks in private homes, apartments, in damp rooms where there are washing machines and dishwashers, in children's rooms, to protect children from electric shock.
With all this, the question often arises – is it possible to connect an RCD without grounding?
It has long been known that the housing of each electrical device has its own potential, and the difference between these devices is not zero! Therefore, there is a need to combine all devices with one bus in order to equalize the potentials.
So it turns out that there is no way to do without grounding. After all, if the insulation is violated, the RCD will expect leakage, and there is no leakage, because there is no grounding, which means there is no leakage. Conclusion — grounding is necessary.
In places of residence where there is no soil, as such, there is a grounding "Herringbone", which received such a name for its shape. Choose one of the walls, usually deaf. Pieces of metal tape, 6 millimeters thick and 8 centimeters wide, are attached to it and connected to each other during welding so that they look like Christmas trees.
These Christmas trees are connected to each other sequentially in one circuit, thereby obtaining, as it were, a capacity with its potential capable of dissipating electrical leakage.
Photo of grounding in a private house