Houses with a flat roof: all the features and advantages of the design. 100 photos of projects of non-standard houses
Projects of houses with a flat roof are quite rare, they serve for the most part as a decorative element of a building on which an additional exploited space can be organized. For example, a summer cafe, a swimming pool, a sauna, a garden area. Most often in construction, for many reasons, a pitched type of roof is used.
The original houses with a flat roof, which can be seen in the photo, thanks to modern waterproofing materials, installation methods, are again becoming relevant and in demand.
In the process of deciding on the construction of this type of roof, it is necessary to consider the advantages and disadvantages of the future structure.
The advantages include:
- Effective protection against negative environmental influences;
- Exclusive, original look;
- Low costs, efforts in the construction process;
- Long-term operation with the absence of huge costs for its care;
- The possibility of obtaining additional space, where, if desired and financially possible, you can even design a swimming pool;
- Remarkable characteristics of heat and waterproofing.
- Maintenance, inspections of important structural components are much easier to carry out than for a pitched roof;
- Snow accumulating in winter provides additional thermal insulation, so that a house with a roof of this type can be heated less.
Flat roofs, however, have a number of significant drawbacks:
- Careless waterproofing work threatens to leak the ceiling of the house with the accumulation of water, melting snow, ice;
- The internal drain is at risk of freezing, clogged with garbage;
- The outer layer needs to be cleaned of rotted foliage, snow drifts. And all this will have to be cleaned only by hand;
- Roofing materials of sheet, piece type are not available for use;
- The technical condition of the insulation cannot be checked.
- The waterproofing system is subjected to stress when snow melts, puddles and ice form on the roof surface.
Many who have a straight roof have an ambiguous attitude to the attic floor, which is absent in this design. Both positive and negative. Depending on your preferences. Therefore, it is very important to think over the coating options before proceeding directly to roofing work.
For a fairly simple design of a flat roof system in the process of its design, special skills are not needed. According to its characteristic features, it is customary to classify it into the following types.
The type of roof being operated. During installation, a solid waterproofing layer is preserved, sufficient rigidity of the base is achieved. The insulation must be strong, resistant to loads. The coating is paving tiles.
Not an operational type. Protection from negative environmental factors. It is arranged much easier, simpler, since there are no specific requirements for the rigidity of the foundation and thermal insulation. There may be a lightweight subtype, with more loyal requirements in terms of construction, when external weather conditions do not exert a significant load on the roof.
The roof of the classical type. Additional moisture protection of the insulation is carried out by laying a thermal insulation layer on the foundation of the structure. Bitumen material is used for waterproofing.
Roof of inversion type. It has a structure like a mirror roof of the classical type. The waterproofing layer is located under the insulation, and not above it, as was intended in the previous design. The temperature difference from which the waterproofing is destroyed is minimal.
Lawn type. Purely decorative, with a layer of soil on top of the base of a flat roof, when the space on the roof is used as a flower garden or simply planted with climbing, creeping plants.
You can also find flat roofs of a combined type when green grass surrounds, for example, a summer cafe located on the roof of a house.
To effectively combat atmospheric precipitation , there are 2 features in the roof design:
- Internal drainage, to protect thermal insulation from moisture;
- Water discharge due to the natural feature of a flat roof – razuklonke.
At this stage, all the necessary calculations are made, the necessary design parameters, dimensions, amount of material used, and its cost are determined. Each stage of the work is considered in detail. A detailed action plan is being drawn up.
Regardless of the number of floors of the house, the design of modern flat roofs has its own characteristics:
A roof of this type can be called flat only conditionally, since there is still a slight slope (up to fifteen degrees) so that precipitation does not accumulate.
The roof of a flat operated type, while maintaining its geometry, is necessarily razuklonka for the possibility of removing water from its surface, preserving the integrity of the waterproofing layer, removing increased static and dynamic loads from it.
Step- by - step design is performed in the following sequence:
- In the form of a sketch, a rough sketch of the future design is made – geometry, dimensions. The load that will affect the frame of the structure together with atmospheric influences is calculated.
- The truss structure is calculated in detail (the cross-sectional area of the support beams, the step in the construction of the lattice).
- The design of ventilation and drainage is being thought out.
- Taking into account all measurements, final drawings are made-diagrams of the roof with all its elements.
- An estimate is made, which includes both the cost of building materials and the costs of carrying out the work.
At the same time, it is better not to chase the scenery, pay more attention to the functionality of the future structure. It is important to note that single-storey houses with a flat roof are not subject to operation when a lightweight roof is used during construction!
The process of building a flat roof
When precipitation falls in small quantities, it is possible to construct a lightweight roof. In fact, its construction resembles the erection of a classic flat structure, only in a lightweight form with a number of specific features:
- The support beams are attached to the load-bearing walls using through anchors. They hold the whole structure.
- When choosing supports, their cross-section is calculated according to the maximum snow load.
- Solid sheathing, fits without gaps from boards with a thickness of 25 mm.
- Fastening of waterproofing layers on top of the crate with construction tape or special glue.
- Flooring of solid thermal insulation on top of water insulation using mounting foam for sealing joints.
- Creation of ventilation channels to avoid accumulation of moisture inside thermal insulation materials, impregnation with it.
- Laying the top layer of the "roofing pie".
- If it is planned to plant a green lawn, then an additional water-repellent layer is laid on which, in fact, the soil will be poured.
Razuklonka is performed during the installation of the base using a cement screed, or in the process of flooring insulation, manipulating its thickness.
In modern houses, when designing an operated flat roof, it is assumed that the roof under the influence of external loads will retain its external shape, without deflections.
There are certain requirements for the construction of the foundation of such structures, which are recommended to be strictly observed. In particular, the following methods are used to achieve the necessary rigidity of the base:
- Concrete slabs are used for overlapping. The strength of the load-bearing walls at the same time should be with a sufficient margin so that the entire structure does not collapse!
- The use of channels. T-shaped, I-beam metal beams are also used. A solid wooden crate is made on top of them
- Ceramic building blocks laid on support beams additionally provide good heat, hydro and sound insulation. The high cost is their only drawback!
When constructing a roof, you need to understand that its service life depends on the quality of waterproofing work.
Looking at the catalogs of cottages with a flat roof, you can be pleasantly surprised by the variety of existing architectural projects. They are definitely different from the eye-watering teremks and tents. The lightness of the airy perception of such houses favorably emphasizes their exclusivity.
With modern technologies, private houses with a flat roof become an ornament, a demonstration of refined taste, favorably distinguishing them from other similar, already pretty boring "houses".