Expanded clay houses — pros and cons of the material. 80 photos of the best projects of a house made of expanded clay concrete blocks
When constructing a private house or cottage, the main thing is to choose a place on the site and high-quality building material. In addition to aesthetics, each owner wants to erect an eternal "ancestral nest" so that descendants will thank for the strength, comfort and energy efficiency of the structure. Well-chosen materials will help to save a lot of money on repairs, heating, etc.
Now brick, wood, concrete or blocks of various composition are used for the construction of buildings: cinder concrete or foam concrete. But we will analyze in detail — expanded clay.
The construction of a house made of expanded clay concrete blocks is becoming very popular. For the construction of buildings, the technology is similar to brick or cinder block, but the best price/ quality ratio has brought expanded clay to the top of sales. The peculiarity of its structure gives excellent operational properties.
The composition of expanded clay is balls with a spongy structure, so the weight of the block is much lower than the brick. This not only reduces the cost of the entire structure, less pressure on the foundation. And labor productivity increases dramatically.
The porous structure perfectly protects against all noise, keeping the heat. Easy installation allows you to build all kinds of options for external walls and indoors.
Advantages of expanded clay concrete housesEnvironmentally friendly products without dangerous impurities, therefore, can be used for interior decoration.
- Moisture resistance.
- Strength and durability.
- Fire resistance, the material is not afraid of high temperatures, it is difficult to ignite.
- Low level of thermal conductivity. When compared with aerated concrete blocks, expanded clay is 1.5 times lower.
- Excellent sound insulation.
- Low weight and high labor productivity, which reduces the time for the construction of the building.
Disadvantages of expanded clay concrete houses
Mandatory finishing (external and internal). If this is not done, then in a couple of years the strength of the material will decrease, this will have a bad effect on the rigidity of the entire building.
Expanded clay concrete blocks (KBB) can not be used for the construction of the foundation of the house. Its porous structure will not withstand heavy loads.
How to calculate the amount of material?
The correct calculation of materials is an important point in construction. Unused materials will be difficult to sell, only at a large discount, which will require costs.
First they choose house designs. Manufacturers produce standard sizes of expanded clay concrete:
- for external walls 190 * 190 * 360 mm;
- for internal partitions 190 * 90 (120) * 360 mm.
It is necessary to add up the areas of all the walls taking into account the parameters of the masonry. Subtract the total area of doorways and windows.
Common mistakes when calculating materials for construction:
- When calculating, they often forget to include pediments.
- It is necessary to take into account the internal walls, when laying from KBB.
- When installing the armature, it must be subtracted from the height of the walls.
- With external brick cladding, expanded clay concrete walls are built slightly smaller than the outer wall.
Often the height of KBB walls is a multiple of the height of block elements with a seam (0.2 m). So, without the armature, the height of the walls will be a multiple of (2.4, 2.6, 2.8).
Important! KBBS do not always need whole ones, parts may be needed for inserts. Also, when unpacking, there may be damaged elements unsuitable for construction.
The size of the house: 10x10 m, 2 windows of 1.6 meters, two doors of 1 m, the length of the partition inside is 9.2 meters.
A house (1st floor) with II gables and I partition inside the room. The outer walls are 19 cm thick (this is the width of the I block), and the inner wall is 39 cm (this is the length of the I block element).
Important! If the cladding is made of brick, there is also insulation, then all the walls are 15 cm smaller on each side (i.e. 0.3 m less).
With the total perimeter of the walls: 9.7 m x 4 m = 38.8 m.
The number of blocks in the I row around the perimeter: 38.8 m / 0.4 = 97 pieces, where 0.4 is the length of the I element, taking into account the seam.
Then multiply by the number of rows (i.e. the height of the walls):
- 2.6 m = 13 rows;
- 2.8 m = 14 rows.
In this example, the height was taken into account 2.8 meters (i.e. 14 levels of masonry): 97 * 14 rows = 1358 pieces.
Subtract both windows (their sizes are 1.6 * 1.4) = 56 pieces. Doors (height 2 m x width 1 m) = 25 pieces. Subtract the doors and both windows from the resulting total number of block elements: 1358 – 56 – 25 = 1277 pieces.
This is the number of block elements for external walls, also considered for the load-bearing wall inside the room. Its thickness should be twice as large (39 cm is the length of the I element).
Load—bearing wall (without door) - 594 pieces.
Add up: 1277 + 594 = 1871 pieces.
On both gables (with a height of 2 m and a length of 9.7 m) = 242.5 pcs.
It is correct to start laying with a whole row, only with II – file the elements, add 2 rows: 242.5 + 48.5 = 291 pieces. Better 300 pcs. to take into account everything (marriage, sawing, etc.). Total: 1871 + 300 = 2171 pieces.
Important! If you need a precise calculation, it is possible to separately calculate each sidewall: 24 item + ¼ (to cut). Definitely need a margin of about 8%. Sell by the pallet, therefore, you should find out in advance from the manufacturer, they will help with the calculations.
You should make sure of the quality of the materials, check the certificates from the company.
For an I-storey building, you can purchase solid blocks, and for a two–storey building, multi-slotted ones. It is valuable that they have docking slots for connecting from the ends, the solution will not be needed.
The foundation of buildings
A house made of expanded clay concrete blocks requires a high-quality foundation. If there is a desire to create a gym in the basement, a boiler room, then concrete blocks will be needed. Without a basement, you can make a ribbon foundation, a trench up to 50 cm, and a width equal to the walls plus 1 m.
At the bottom there is a sand cushion, and from the boards (chipboard, OSB), a reinforcing grate and formwork are prepared. Pour concrete, compacting each layer in 20 cm.
Sequence of works
The surface of the foundation bends after shrinkage, it is leveled with a level. A layer of mastic is laid between the layers of the foundation, and roofing material for waterproofing is placed on the upper surface.
The laying of the KBB should start from the corner, for this they pull a rope (cord). Constant control of the plumb line and the level is important, first they put the I-th row around the perimeter, etc.
After the IV row, it is advised to reinforce the wall around the perimeter, cover with a solution and continue laying. If the walls are double, then two rows are laid at the same time.
For a two-storey house, the thickness of the I-th floor from 40 cm is needed. Manufacturers produce large-sized 590 x 400 x 200 mm blocks.
When the I-th floor is finished, the top layer is reinforced with a reinforcing belt so that the load is distributed evenly. Often a brick belt or made of w / b blocks, it is necessary to insulate it.
Types of finishes
To ensure good thermal insulation, it is necessary to finish expanded clay concrete houses:
The facade can be insulated with expanded polystyrene slabs (up to 50 cm). For beauty, use colored plaster or decorative tiles.
"Ventilated" facades are popular, where aluminum foil (vapor barrier) is used, then mineral wool is fixed. Waterproofing is installed from above, then closed with siding or others. A costly method, but it will serve for a long time, such a layering will provide warmth in the house.
Variants of expanded clay concrete houses are presented in the photo in the gallery.
Photos of expanded clay concrete houses