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Drainage on the site — instructions for arranging a water drainage system with your own hands (115 photos)

After you have purchased a plot for a country house, you should not immediately plan the laying of the foundation, the construction of the building and the arrangement of the garden. Similarly, do not rush to rejoice after buying a house. After all, there is an important point that many miss – the creation and modernization of the drainage system.

These jobs are quite complex, require special skills and abilities. But you can handle them yourself. Moreover, the services of specialists are very expensive. Let's discuss together how to properly and effectively carry out the drainage of the site using modern technologies.

Drainage is a complex of engineering communications, thanks to which soil, as well as thawed and rain moisture does not linger on the site, which reduces the risk of waterlogging the area. It will naturally move away from the foundations, which will prevent the movement of the soil and the squeezing of the building due to frost heaving.

Point, or local, drainage allows you to divert water from any specific areas. It is installed, for example, under roof gutters, in the area of installation of cranes for watering or washing the machine.

The linear design is focused on removing moisture from large areas of the house territory. In this case, a variety of trays and channels are used, supplemented with sand traps, protective grilles, etc.

Deep construction

A more effective way to drain the site and protect it from the accumulation of excess moisture will be the installation of a complex of discharge pipes. They are stacked with an inclination towards the well or collector.

Installation of pipes can be made at a depth of up to 1.5 m, i.e. it will be located below the sole of the foundation. This way you will be able to ensure high-quality groundwater drainage. Therefore, they are laid not only along the perimeter of buildings, but also in the middle of the site with a herringbone in the direction of the well with a step of 10-20 m.

If the house is located on a slope, then it is easier to equip such a system compared to the situation when the building is located on flat terrain. In this case, it is necessary to vary the depth of the trenches, creating a slope of 10-30 mm per 1 m of pipe.

But for long drains there is a large height difference, which significantly violates the design. In this case, it is recommended to use several wells:

  • Rotary – installed at the joints of pipes and serve to clean the entire system.
  • Water intake – used to collect moisture with subsequent forced pumping.
  • Absorption – with a depth of more than 2 m with the possibility of removing excess water through the bottom into sandy or sandy loam soil. At the bottom of such a well, a filter layer of sand, gravel, and crushed stone is created.

In the photo of the drainage system being equipped in suburban areas, you can see the specifics and differences of the two technologies offered.

Arrangement of surface drainage

Despite the fact that this option does not require complex engineering calculations, the drainage scheme for the site should still be. This option is universal when draining small areas. It is recommended to prepare a track built with a "herringbone". The distance between the drains depends on the characteristics of the soil. For example, for clay soils it is less, for sandy soils it is more.

During the work, a groove is dug up to 350 mm deep. If communications are placed in sandy soil, then the width of the trench will be the same. Clay soils and loams require a wider base – up to 450 mm. It is necessary to equip one central conduit, where all the side pipes should be directed.

The water intake should be installed in the lower part of the site. The dimensions of the pit for the well are determined by the size of the capacity. If you plan to install on sandy soil, then the option with a filter well is suitable.

In order for the drainage of water from the site to be the most effective, it is necessary to strictly observe the slope. To check, a good water pressure is passed through the trench. If it passes quickly and without delays in the connecting blocks of drains, then the structure is constructed correctly. In case of delays, it is necessary to adjust the grooves along the slope.

The ditch or their system should be covered with a film or tarpaulin. The geotextile used, for example, should cover not only the bottom, but also enter the slopes. The insulating material must be securely fixed with nails, and reinforced with spacers on the walls.

The bottom of the trench should be filled with a layer of chips of 100 mm, and then with fine gravel, crushed stone or previously removed soil. The groove can also be concreted, but this method is more laborious and expensive. Installation of drain pipes and a storm drain will improve the quality of the entire drainage system.

Construction of deep drainage

If you want to learn how to make drainage on a plot that protects your country house from flooding as much as possible, then you need to study in detail the technology of arranging a deep structure. It is especially necessary in areas with elevated groundwater levels. The technology in question will help to drain the land perfectly, preserving the external presentability of the landscape.

At the initial stage, a plan is created with drawing lines of pipe placements. The direction of withdrawal is from the slope. The depth of laying pipes is determined by the type of soil – for the sandy type, the trench is dug at 1 m, and 0.5 m is enough for dense soil.

Take into account the ambient temperature in winter. After all, in prolonged frosty weather, there is a risk of rupture of the pipe with water residues, and ground movements can easily crush them.

Drainage of an area with a high groundwater level will become more reliable and durable if perforated plastic pipes are used. Additionally, they should be covered with textiles for better insulation.

The width of the trenches is more than 300 mm. All pipes are combined into a common system that ensures the discharge of moisture into a single point. It is necessary to provide a slope of 20-40 mm per 1 m of pipe.

At the lower point of the territory, a receiving well is being equipped. If the area of the arrangement is small, then accumulative and filtering types of receivers are applicable. Vast territories with clay soils and loams are equipped with storage wells up to 1000 liters in volume.

The bottom of the trenches is covered with fine gravel, and geotextile is laid on top of it. It is important to ensure the overlap of the material on the slopes and fastening with pegs. From above, the average fraction of crushed stone should be filled in. And only then should the pipe be installed. Its diameter should be at least 110 mm.

Where the drain turns, observation wells should be installed, the dimensions of which depend on the projected volume of moving water. The pipe is connected to the mounting hole by means of a coupling with pretreatment with a sealant.

This technology is also used when attaching the drain to the well pipe. This is the only way you will be able to make a good drainage in the suburban area. Don't forget to test the system!

Layers are laid on the laid pipe:

  • fine gravel;
  • geotextile;
  • quarry sand;
  • ground.

Excessive accumulation of water in the soil in the country can spoil all the impressions of the holiday. Therefore, home owners should be extremely attentive to the installation of a drainage system that allows timely and complete removal of sedimentary and groundwater.

It's not too easy to do this, but it's necessary. This way you will protect the foundation of the house and the fertile soil layer in the garden.

Photos of drainage on the site