Cherry — planting and care . Proper tree pruning. Benefits and harms of the main varieties (80 photos)
The favorite of most gardeners is the beautiful cherry. She has long conquered the hearts of their families. The cherry belongs to the Pink family and is officially called Bird Cherry. All varieties of the species are characterized by rapid growth. In length, the trees reach 10 meters, and some up to 30 meters. The crown changes during growth from egg-shaped to cone-shaped.
The color of the bark is red-brown with silvery shades. The leaves are long, elongated oval in shape. The root formation occurs in the first 2 years of the tree's life. It is usually straight, with good branching.
As a rule, flowering occurs in mid-May. The cherry blossoms are fragrant, resemble a cherry in appearance. Berries have the most diverse color: white, yellow, all shades of red and even black. The taste is rich and rich. Cherry is a very juicy berry.
Already 4-5 years after planting, the first crop ripens. Cherry is a very fertile plant. During the season, you can collect 5 or even 6 buckets of ripe berries from one tree.
Loves warmth, so it grows best in the southern regions. But in general, it bears fruit well throughout the territory with moderate and temperate continental climatic conditions. Today there are varieties bred specifically for the northern regions.
Cherry varieties can boast of their diversity (gardeners number more than four thousand). The most convenient classification will be by the time of maturation. They are divided into early, medium and late varieties.
If you just look at the photo of cherries, it will be difficult to say which variety is better. When choosing, focus on these indicators. Description of all varieties is difficult, so let's look at the most popular of them.
Iput. The most common early-ripening variety. Frost-resistant, early-fruiting, medium-yielding cherry. An adult tree reaches an average size (8-10 meters).
Ripe berries acquire a dark red, almost black color and have an impressive mass (9 grams). The variety is immune to coccomycosis. Ideal for transportation. Suitable pollinators are Tyutchevka, Ovstuzhevka, Bryansk Pink.
Yellow infield. Cherries are quite resistant to frost and drought. It reaches large sizes. A self-fertile tree with a high yield index. Ripe yellow fruits have a sweet taste with a slight sourness. Unsuitable for transportation.
Raditsa. The earliest maturing representative of the species. It needs pollinators (Bryansk pink, General's, Iput). The berries have a burgundy color and a rich sweet taste. The tree is small in size, has a neat crown.
Medium - aged varieties
Jealous. A medium-sized tree that tolerates frost perfectly. Mature berries are almost black in color. They are suitable for transportation, and in the rainy period they do not become watery. Partially self-fertile, but the presence of Ovstuzhevka or Raditsa in the neighborhood contributes to an increase in yield.
Esperena (Napoleon Pink). It is recommended for cultivation in the southern regions. The berry is well separated from the stone, has a yellow – pink color. The pollinator is Yellow Drogana. Due to the tendency to cracking in the rainy season, it is unsuitable for long storage.
Fatezh. Frost-resistant, high-yielding, medium-sized variety. The berries are red, but the flesh is pink. Perfectly tolerates transportation. Pollinators include Iput, Crimean, Tyutchevka.
Late - ripening varieties
Tyutchevka. High-yielding cherries that withstand frost. An adult tree of medium size, with a well-developed crown. Large berries taste sweet, dark red color prevails. Pollinating varieties are Iput and Revna.
Bryansk Pink. The variety is very late in maturation. Resistant to coccomycosis and fungal diseases. The growth of an adult tree is 10-12 meters. The fruits are pink, juicy and very sweet. Needs pollinators (Tyutchevka, Revna, Iput, Ovstuzhevka).
Grow and care for cherry
Seedlings can be planted in spring and autumn. The main thing is not to get into frosts. It is worth taking seriously the choice of a landing site. It is best to produce it in places where the tree will be protected from the winds (near fences, next to other trees).
You can not plant cherries in the shade. When planting, the soil should be watered and mulched. To combat coccomycosis, it is recommended to plant lilies of the valley around the trunk.
For the most part, cherries are hardy to droughts, but in particularly arid areas it is worth watering the tree periodically. Herbicides are used to prevent weeds. Fertilize should be in spring, in late April – mid-May.
In flat and particularly windy areas, most gardeners resort to warming cherries for the winter. It is necessary to cover the cherries before the first snow.
Not everyone knows how to cut cherries correctly. Although the growth of the tree is fast, the ability to form shoots is weak. Therefore, in the process of crown formation, it will be useful to leave 4-5 branches for each tier.
The inter-level distance is allowed up to half a meter. Active pruning should be carried out in the first years of seedling growth. After the beginning of fruiting, it should be stopped and carried out only for sanitary purposes (getting rid of old, dry branches). Proper and timely pruning will help in creating the exact shape of the tree and facilitate harvesting.
Diseases and parasites, methods of combating them
Cherries have diseases and pests to which they are most susceptible. The most common ailments are coccomycosis, moniliosis and hole spotting. Coccomycosis is a fungus that mainly affects the leaves. Brown spots appear on them, which eventually grow and lead to leaf fall. As a result, the yield of the tree is significantly reduced. The disease is especially dangerous in rainy seasons.
Unlike coccomycosis, hole spotting (or klasterosporiosis) progresses both on leaves and on shoots, flowers, branches and buds. This fungus got its name due to the fact that holes appear on the affected leaves, then they fall off. The flowers suffering from the disease wither, and the shoots die.
Monoliosis or gray rot leads to drying of flowers and rotting of berries. The disease behaves actively throughout the summer, which leads to the drying of many branches and spoilage of the crop.
To date, there are many drugs for the prevention and destruction of these diseases.
The second name of the cherry is "bird tree" and this is not accidental. Birds are another "pest" of fruits. As soon as the ripening of the fruits is nearing completion, flocks of birds literally attack the trees. A lot of tricks have been invented to deal with them.
Gardeners install stuffed animals, mirrors, CDs, etc. on the branches. These methods are good, but the birds do not react to them for long and continue to sweep the berries again. This was another reason why you should not delay the harvesting of fruits.
The amount of vitamins in cherries is simply off the scale (B vitamins, vitamin A, H, C, etc.). Berries also contain potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, zinc, manganese and copper. But that's not all. The cherries contain the acids necessary for the human body.
The berry is recommended for anemia and low hemoglobin. It normalizes metabolism, the digestive system, improves appetite. Cherries will also be good in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections.
Nutritionists recommend using cherries for people suffering from excess weight. This is due to the presence of fiber and the low calorie content of the fruit. Decoctions of cherry blossoms and leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent.
As you can see from the proposed article, cherries are a real treasure. It is easy to care for, weather resistant and, importantly, grows quickly. Berries make excellent desserts and winter preservation. The species diversity of cherries will help to please any gourmet, and its benefits are great and obvious.
Photo of cherries