Cherry plum — the best varieties of fruits. 115 photos and a detailed overview of all the properties of cherry plum for humans.
Now many summer residents are thinking about growing such a plant as "cherry plum" on their plot. This is a fruit tree that looks like a plum, but still very different from it. Initially, it grew only in Transcaucasia and Central Asia, the locals loved it for the juiciness and sweet taste of the fruit.
Until the middle of the 20th century, cherry plum grew only in the south of our country, but thanks to Russian scientists, varieties were bred that can now be found in many parts of central Russia. Let's consider in the article the description of cherry plum and how to grow it.
The plum fruit crop is a drought–resistant and light-loving plant, accustomed to the bright sun. The height of the tree can vary from 8 to 12 meters. It usually lives for about 35 years, but there were also older trees.
Cherry plum is an unpretentious plant, resistant to diseases and damage. Already two years after planting, the tree begins to bear fruit, because the crown grows very quickly and every year the yield of the tree increases.
Ripe fruits can be harvested from the end of July to the beginning of September. Below are photos of cherry plums of different varieties.
Now the cherry plum is well adapted to the climate of central Russia, so now it can be found not only in the south of the country. At the moment, many varieties of cherry plum have been bred. They can vary in cold resistance, shape, size and color of fruits from yellow to purple.
Varieties with large fruits are very popular. For example, such varieties as Tent, Gek and Monomakh. The Tent variety bears its first fruits 4 years after planting, has large, yellow fruits and weighs up to 40 g, and you can harvest 35 kg from one tree. The variety tolerates frost perfectly.
The Huck variety has dark yellow fruits of a slightly smaller size, but the yield will also please gardeners. The fruits of the Monomakh variety are smaller in size, but they are not inferior in taste. Juicy purple berries have a wonderful and unusual taste.
Given the climate of our country, we very often have cold winters, so it is worth considering frost–resistant varieties - Vladimir Comet, Rocket Seedling and Timiryazevskaya. The first variety was bred relatively recently, but has already won the love of many gardeners, thanks to its special frost resistance. This is not the only advantage of the variety, it very quickly begins to bear fruit, increasing them every year.
Trees of the Rocket Seedling variety can withstand temperatures up to -30 degrees, so this variety is often chosen by residents of the northern regions. The fruits grow up to 30 g and have a delicate taste and juiciness.
The Timiryazevskaya plum was bred at the institute specifically for the northern regions of our country. This small tree, no more than 3 meters high, yields up to 35 kg of harvest and has a juicy pulp and sweet taste.
Many gardeners are looking for plant varieties that do not require additional pollination. Such self-fertile varieties as Traveller, Mara and Kuban Comet will come to their aid. The first variety can be a pollinator for other trees. It will yield up to 40 kg every year, and will also be resistant to both frost and drought.
Summer residents of central Russia bred the self-fertile and frost-resistant cherry plum Mara. These are small trees of about 3 meters, which have a good yield, and the fruits ripen in mid-July and do not fall off until September.
The latter variety is not only self-fertile, but also has a good yield of about 40 kg per season, has large and sweet fruits.
Many people have a question, which cherry plum is better. There is no exact answer to it, but when choosing a variety, the following points should be taken into account. Preference should be given to the variety that is more adapted to the climate of the area where it will grow.
You also need to ask after what time the tree will begin to bear fruit. The sooner this happens, the sooner you will get a good harvest.
If you rarely come to the suburban area, then you should choose varieties that are unpretentious and do not need good care. Otherwise, the tree will not bear many fruits or they will be small in size.
How to grow cherry plum
The best way to plant cherry plum is rooting it with cuttings. Experienced gardeners advise planting cherry plum in autumn, so it will take root better than in spring. It is better to choose a stalk that has already been grown in the territories of your region.
It is important to choose the right place for planting. It should be a site that is as protected from the winds as possible, but at the same time sunny, so that the tree has enough light. So the plant will bear more fruits that will have a sweet taste and juiciness.
In order for the cherry plum cuttings to easily take root and take root well, you should dig a hole about 50 cm and 80 cm in diameter. In advance, add useful minerals and fertilizer to it for fertilizing. A little sand should be added to the clay soil, and turf should be added to the sandy soil.
When planting several trees, a distance of 2-3 meters should be observed, since in the future their crown will grow, and the plants will interfere with each other. After planting, immediately water the tree.
Sometimes summer residents can use the shoots that appear from the seeds, from the fruits that have fallen from the cherry plum tree. But you can grow seedlings yourself. After frosts, such seedlings can be planted in the ground.
How to prune cherry plum
An important stage in the cultivation of a cherry plum tree. Experts advise pruning this tree in the spring, between April and March, before the buds swell and the tree gains color. But if for some reason you missed this moment and forgot to prune the tree, then you should not do it after the swelling of the kidneys, you should postpone this process to the next season.
Thinning pruning relieves the crown of excess branches to allow light to penetrate to future fruits and not interfere with their development, and also has a rejuvenating effect, ridding the tree of old branches. You can do this in the summer, but then it will rather be a corrective pruning, which will slightly affect the tree.
Usually, medical pruning is performed and the tree is rid of unnecessary branches. This procedure can be carried out all year round, excluding winter. Cherry plum is cut depending on the shape that they want to give to the crown of the tree and the frost resistance of this variety.
In frost-resistant varieties, you can leave longer branches, trees that do not have such properties should be pruned at a height of 80 cm.
How to care for cherry plum
Caring for cherry plum is expressed in proper watering and fertilizing of the tree. This plant is resistant to drought, but it should still be watered several times during the summer, in the absence of natural precipitation. In autumn, the tree is watered before the winter cold, so that moisture remains in the roots.
If in the winter of almost no snow, then shed in the spring the tree with the expectation of two buckets one year in the life of the tree. Feed the plum, usually in autumn, but other options are possible, the main thing is to do it no more than 3 times per year.
In the spring, minerals are added to promote the rapid and good flowering of the tree, usually urea, potassium and phosphorus fertilizers.
Young cherry plum is watered a little more often, about five times a season. Usually the cherry plum is not sheltered for the winter, but it is possible to protect newly planted trees from frost. Usually the roots are sprinkled with peat and covered with a thick cloth.