Fish breeding in a pond — artificial cultivation of exotic and valuable varieties of fish (80 photos)
An artificial pond can be not only an element of the decor of a suburban area. With the right approach, you can grow fish in it yourself. Fish farming will not only provide you with an interesting hobby, useful homemade fish, but it can also become a small profitable business.
In order for fish breeding at home to become a successful occupation, it is necessary to choose the right type of fry for breeding, the size and location of the reservoir and provide the fish with comfortable conditions for growth and reproduction.
When creating a fish pond, its correct location is important. For this purpose, the lowest-lying, sunny place of your site is well suited.
There should be no trees and shrubs nearby – their roots can damage the bowl of the reservoir. It is also recommended to place a pond away from buildings to prevent their shrinkage.
The optimal size of the reservoir for fish breeding is 15-50 sq.m., the depth should be at least 1 meter and no more than 3, while it is preferable that the bottom has differences in relief. Due to the differences, the water will warm up well in the shallowest places, and fish will be able to winter in the deepest ones.
The calculation of the volume of the future pond directly depends on the planned species and the number of fish that will inhabit it. One fish with a size of 10 cm on average needs 50 liters of water.
Water supply and discharge
You should immediately think about how and from what source the water will come. This will decide the appearance and design of the bowl. It is possible to bring water along the bottom of the reservoir. Then the pipe needs to be dug in and brought out at the bottom of the reservoir. Also, water can come from an artificially made stream or a water cascade.
To fill the pond, both tap water and from an artificial well or collected rainwater will be suitable. After filling the bowl, wait 3-4 days, wait for the water to warm up and only then start the fish, this will create more comfortable conditions for it.
Water drainage can be arranged in a gutter or the nearest stream. For this purpose, a pipe is mounted on the bottom. It is also possible to pump out water and use it for irrigation.
After calculating the required volume of the pond, a multi-stage pit should be dug. The steps should be 20-30 cm wide, the number is from 2 to 4. The soil in the pit should be carefully leveled and tamped. After that, the soil should be sprinkled with sand (15-20 cm) and crushed stone (about 5 cm), pour 10-15 cm of reinforced concrete on top. After the waterproofing is laid out. The shores can be decorated with large stones.
To build a pond of such complexity is a difficult, time–consuming task. But this design of the reservoir is the most convenient and durable. The pond bowl will be protected from damage, and the steps made will serve not only to accommodate plants, but will also be convenient for descending into the bowl and washing it.
A more budget option would be to cover the earthen bottom with a dense plastic film. The method is very unreliable, so a combination of methods is often done – the walls and bottom are cemented and a layer of film is laid out on top.
If you plan to winter fish in the same pond, it is recommended to make a "wintering pit" in it. Most often it is just a barrel dug into the bottom of the pond without a lid, in which the water will not freeze in winter.
Design and creation of an ecosystem
Moisture-loving sedge, hosta and ferns will help to arrange the area around the reservoir. For planting on the first underwater steps of the pond, air is well suited. For a large body of water, a marsh calamus, reaching 1 m in height, is preferable, and for a small one, a cereal calamus, 40 cm high. Pots with whitefly can be placed on the steps. It is not necessary to seat it freely – it will quickly grow throughout the water mirror.
Since an artificial pond is a closed system, it cannot do without aquatic plants and algae. It simply needs plants that produce oxygen. The most active plants in this regard are hornwort, water buttercup, marsh and water moss. Plant them in pots and place them at the bottom of the pond.
In order to prevent contamination of the pond with an excessive amount of algae and to protect it from overheating, such deep-sea plants as water lily, brazenia and potbelly will help. Their root system is located at a depth, as the upper part floats on the surface.
Also, floating non–rooting plants - rogulnik, vodokras, azolla will save from overheating and blooming of water. The number of these plants should be regulated independently, as they can quickly cover the entire surface of the reservoir.
Many experts advise when using tap or artesian water to fill a reservoir, pour 2-3 buckets of river water into it. This will help small algae multiply in it and create a familiar ecosystem for the fish.
It is mandatory to constantly monitor the acid-base balance of water. The optimal value is 7-8 pH. If this indicator is reduced to 5, limestone or soda should be added to the water until the desired pH values are obtained.
Types of fish
In order for a pond for breeding fish in the country to be not only an ornament, but also profitable, it is necessary to choose the right inhabitants for it.
The simplest in keeping and breeding are thermophilic fish species (tench, carp, crucian carp). They are not demanding in nutrition, ambient temperature and water acidity and get along well with each other.
Cold-loving species (trout, pelage, whitefish) are very demanding on the concentration of oxygen in the water and are poorly suited for home breeding. Creating conditions for breeding fish of cold–loving breeds is a very painstaking and expensive task.
If you want the pond to have a purely decorative character, then unpretentious voilehvosty and verkhovki are well suited for breeding. Minnows and Japanese carp can live in ponds with artificial aeration.
Acquisition of fry
It is not difficult to buy fry now. There are many companies engaged in breeding fish for stocking reservoirs.
To buy a tench fry of 7-14 cm in size will cost about 70 rubles, crucian carp (35-45 cm) – 200 rubles apiece, crucian carp up to 40 cm in size will cost an average of 100 rubles.
Since fish breeding in a small pond can only take place by an intensive method, the issue of feeding is very acute here.
The fish diet should be based on the preferences of the fish species you breed. It can be either live food (bloodworms, mollusks, worms), or grain or flour.
You can use ready-made compound feeds sold in special stores. You can also use compound feed for pigs, but its content in the diet should not exceed 25%.
In the summer, fish feeding occurs twice a day, and in the cold season, fish stop eating. In the spring, it is recommended to feed the fish 1 time every two days.
Feed should be poured from special pallets and it is not recommended to give food more than the inhabitants of the pond can eat in 15 minutes. For rapid growth, you can add animal proteins and mineral fertilizers to the diet.
Intensive, proper nutrition will help prepare the fish for the winter period. Healthy, strong fish will tolerate the cold more easily.
Wintering of fish is possible only in reservoirs with a depth of more than 1.5 m and having a bottom wintering pit.
Regularly do it in the ice crust of the ice hole formed on the surface of the pond. It is not necessary to completely remove ice from the surface – this can lead to hypothermia of the water.
You can pump out some of the water from the frozen pond with a pump – this will increase the air layer that enriches the water with oxygen. Also in winter, you can use an aerator.
Now you know how to breed fish in a pond. It's up to you to decide how profitable this activity is. However, it is impossible not to agree that a home pond with real fish can be a great place for home recreation and just a bright design solution for the design of a suburban area.
Photos of the fish breeding process in the pond