Apple tree — planting and tree care. The best varieties according to experts. Photos of the most delicious apples.
A blooming apple orchard fascinates with its beauty and aroma, and in autumn pleases with delicious fruits. To make fruit stocks for the whole year, you need to plant and grow trees. Having looked at the apple trees in the photo, you can choose the right varieties for your own garden.
The fruits of this crop contain not only vitamins, but also a lot of fiber and iron. Therefore, you can find this tree on almost every site.
Summer crops delight us with their fruits already in the second half of August. These varieties are known for a friendly harvest, but you should carefully monitor them so as not to miss the harvest time. Such apples are stored for only one month, but they contain the largest amount of vitamins and nutrients.
Popular varieties of summer apple trees:
- Melba is distinguished by its rapid entry into the fruiting season and high yield.
- Honeydew has sweet fruits with a spicy honey aroma.
- Chinese golden early has rounded fruits of amber-yellow color with a sour-sweet taste.
- The white filling is characterized by a delicate taste, juicy and fragrant apples will help quench thirst on a hot summer day.
Autumn varieties ripen in late August – early September. If several large ripe fruits have already fallen to the ground, then it's time to start harvesting. Their shelf life is three months, they are suitable for harvesting for the winter.
- Spartan will give a generous harvest, the tree is unpretentious in care.
- Zhigulevskoe is suitable for southern and northern regions, apples are stored for a long time.
- The champion has become widespread due to its high yield.
- Macintosh gives gardeners fragrant sweet fruits with a delicate sour-candy flavor.
- Gala is distinguished by juicy sour-sweet fruits with a pleasant nutty-caramel aroma.
Winter apple trees do not have time to ripen in summer, they will be ready after ripening in storage boxes. The advantage of such varieties is the ability to consume them fresh when snow has already fallen outside the window.
To store fruits, it is necessary to create the right conditions. There should be no sudden temperature changes in the room. Different varieties are stored separately. Apples need to be sorted out, the damaged ones separated.
- Lobo provides a regular harvest of large and sweet apples, characterized by high transportability.
- Florina is the result of the work of French breeders.
- Semerenko is grown for winter storage.
- Synap requires special care, it is grown on moist soils.
- Golden Delicious is native to America, has a mixed type of fruiting.
To determine which apple variety is better, you need to study the main characteristics. Different types differ not only in the ripening period, but also in taste qualities.
Planting an apple tree
The planting time of young trees is chosen taking into account the climate of the region and the characteristics of the variety. If the winters are snowy, then the apple tree can be planted in autumn. In areas where there is a small amount of precipitation, but there are severe frosts, the plant is planted in spring. In the first year, fertilizing is not performed, but the tree should be watered regularly.
To get a generous harvest, it is important to follow the rules of planting and growing apple trees. A month before planting, a hole is dug, the depth of which is 0.8 m, and the diameter is 1 m. Then a peg is driven in the middle, it is necessary to support the tree.
To prepare a fertile mixture, a fertile layer of soil, compost, peat, manure is used. Then this composition is added to the pit. When planting a young apple tree, chernozem is added to the bottom of the hole. The trunk is tied to a peg, fill the hole with 3 buckets of water.
Apple tree care
Each plant requires attention, so it needs to be taken care of, starting from the first warm days. Initially, the territory around the apple tree is cleared of snow and trampled down. This procedure will save the tree from pests and diseases. Novice gardeners are often interested in how to prune an apple tree. The procedure is carried out in March, April.
In adult trees, part of last year's branches that bore fruit are removed. This ensures the appearance of new buds, improves yields. All branches growing inside the crown are cut off. If the apple tree is more than seven years old, then the tops should be removed, they are left in young trees.
Top dressing is carried out to improve root and leaf nutrition, improve the fruiting of the tree. For this purpose, various fertilizers and complexes of trace elements are used. The apple tree also requires regular watering.
Diseases and pests
You can get a rich harvest of apples with good tree care. It is susceptible to various diseases that affect fruits and leaves. To determine the methods of control, you should know what diseases and pests of apple trees exist. This will help to start the fight against them in a timely manner and protect the future harvest.
The main pests:
- apple copperhead;
- green aphid;
- apple fruitworm.
The larvae of the apple honeydew suck the juices from the leaves, leave sticky secretions in the form of globular light drops. There is a gluing of buds, leaves, buds, which disrupts physiological processes. Under these conditions, saprophytic fungi begin to develop.
The caterpillars of the hawthorn butterfly damage the buds, leaves, buds. They gnaw the leaf blade almost completely. An adult lays up to 500 eggs per season, from which caterpillars come out, destroying the leaves.
Green aphids are able to spread viruses that lead to the development of anomalies in plants. The main threat is the larvae of the pest. Timely measures taken will help protect the tree from this parasite.
The apple moth is a dangerous pest. Its larvae develop directly in the pulp of the fruit. If the natural conditions are favorable for them, then you can lose almost the entire crop.
The apple tree is susceptible to a large number of diseases, among which the following types are often found:
- fruit rot;
- powdery mildew.
Scab is a fungal disease. It can be recognized by round olive spots on young leaves. If measures are not taken in a timely manner, then the fruits are covered with black streaks. Scab occurs more often in temperate regions, which are characterized by wet and cold winters. The fungus affects trees at any stage of development.
Fruit rot or moniliosis leads to rotting of the pulp. Weakened trees whose fruits are damaged fall into the risk group. Fungal spores are carried by the wind. At the initial stage, a gray speck appears on the apple, which gradually becomes larger.
Powdery mildew affects all organs of the plant. A gray-white coating appears on them. The foliage stops growing and gradually dies off. On fruits, the disease manifests itself in the form of a rusty mesh.
In order for a blooming apple tree to please the eye in spring and give delicious fruits in autumn, you need to take care of the tree. Provide him with good care and protection from pests and diseases. This will allow you to maintain a healthy and fruitful garden for many years.